Cyprus, known as the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean. The earliest known human presence on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia. Here, you'll also find some of the oldest water wells in the world. In the 2nd millennium BC, Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves. It was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great due to its strategic location in the Middle East. Following this period Cyprus was ruled by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians. Between 1571 and 1878 Cyprus experienced over three centuries of Ottoman rule.
The legacy of this history has left a footprint of archaeology which makes Cyprus a fascinating destination.