Egypt, a country uniting northeast Africa with the Middle East, spans back to the time of the pharaohs. Millennia-old monuments can be found along the fertile Nile River Valley, such as Giza's gigantic Pyramids and Great Sphinx not forgetting Luxor's hieroglyph-lined Karnak Temple and Valley of the Kings tombs. In it's capital city, Cairo, Ottoman landmarks, including the Muhammad Ali Mosque and the Egyptian Museum, a trove of antiquities can be discovered.
Egypt has one of the longest and most significant histories of any country. Its heritage can be traced back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Ancient Egypt has witnessed some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion, and central government and is considered the cradle of civilisation. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings all showcase this legacy and continue to be the focus of both scientific and popular interest.
Egypt's historic and rich cultural heritage is central to its national identity, which has endured and often assimilated various foreign influences, including Persian, Greek, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, Roman, and Nubian.
Egypt was also an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the 7th century and today is a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.
Egypt is among the most fascinating countries of the ancient civilisation. For the traveller, it offers a rich cultural experience and boasts of some of the most iconic landmarks in the world.